It is a monument of Russian artillery casting art, cast in bronze in 1586 in Moscow, by the Russian master bronze caster Andrey Chokhov. Mostly of symbolic impact, it was never used in a war.
During the French invasion of Russia, although Napoleon Bonaparte considered removing it to France as a war trophy.
The gun was meant to shoot 800 kg stone grapeshot rather than true, solid cannonballs.
Its bronze-cast barrel has an internal diameter of 35"
The cannon-style gun carriage, added in 1835, is purely decorative. This weapon was never intended to be transported on or fired from this gun carriage.
The 2000 pound cannon balls located in front of the Tsar Cannon were produced in 1834 as a decoration, too large to have been used in the cannon.
According to legend, the cannonballs were manufactured in St. Petersburg, and were intended to be a humorous addition and a symbol of the friendly rivalry between Moscow and St. Petersburg.
the next largest super cannon was the The Dardanelles Gun, made before Columbus sailed the Atlantic
a 15th-century super-sized bombard siege cannon, designed and built in 1464 by Turkish military engineer Munir Ali, which saw action in the 1807 Dardanelles Operation, it has a range of a mile
The breech in this cannon is shorter and slightly smaller diameter than the chase. Both parts are cast with prominent double mouldings at either end which are joined longitudinally by sixteen crosspieces to form an equal number of sockets for the insertion of the levers used in screwing or unscrewing the two parts.
The Dardanelles Operation was the Royal Navy's unsuccessful attempt to impose British demands on the Ottoman Empire as part of the Anglo-Turkish War (1807-1809).
British ships were attempting to deter the Ottomans from entering into a war with Russia, ensure freedom of movement for British ships, and hopefully free-up shipping lanes.
The operation occurred only two years after the Royal Navy had triumphed at the Battle of Trafalgar.
In 1866, on the occasion of a state visit, Sultan Abdülâziz gave the Dardanelles Gun to Queen Victoria as a present.
the two pieces screw together, fire grapeshot, the barrel has a bore of 24.5 inches
As one of the larger and well documented surviving medieval cannons, Mons Meg stands in pride of place at Edinburgh Castle and in its history.
Constructed around 1449 in Mons, part of what is now modern day Belgium, at the request of Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy, the bombard was intended as a wedding present to King James II of Scotland, who, in 1457 married Duke Philips' great niece, Mary of Gueldres.
With an impressive rate of fire of 8 shots a day (it had to be cooled and cleaned after each shot), it had a theorical range of 2.5 miles although it was used at 1.25